Tuesday, 1 April 2014


Attribute are special features given to a tag. An attribute specifies whether the META tag contains descriptive information about the page (NAME) or HTTP header information.

==In HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) , an attribute is a characteristic of a page element, such as a font. An HTML user can set font attributes, such as size and color, to different values. In some programming languages, such as PowerBuilder Power Script, an attribute is a property of an object or may be considered a container for the property of the object. For example, color might be an attribute of a text object, containing the value of "red."
In a database management system (DBMS), an attribute may describe a component of the database, such as a table or a field, or may be used itself as another term for a field.
In the DOS operating system, file properties, such as "read-only" or "visible," are called attributes.
The class Attribute:
The class attribute is used to associate an element with a style sheet, and specifies the class of element. You learn more about the use of the class attribute when you will learn Cascading Style Sheet (CSS). So for now you can avoid it.
The value of the attribute may also be a space-separated list of class names.
 For example:
class="classNameA classNameB classNameC"

Program 1.
Perform the following step:

    *Open any text editor like Notepad, Word (dos), etc. to write HTML code.
    * Open the file menu to create a new document Select File> New and type the following code.

    <title> a web page </title>
    * Click on the File menu and save the file with the name exercise 01.html.
    *Open your web browser and navigate on to the file title execrise 01.html for viewing the output.
In HTML, an attribute is a characteristic of a page element, such as a font. An HTML user can set font attributes such as size and color to different value. in some
Programming language, such as PowerBuilder and Power Script. An attribute is property of an object or may be considered as a container for the property of an object.

For example, color might be an attribute of a text object, containing the value of "red". An attribute is a keyword separated by space within the brackets, such as <HR WIDTH="300">.
Here width=300 is the attribute font the tag. This will specify the width for the HR tag. There are different attributes like height, width etc.

* URL stand for=== Uniform Resource Locator.
*HTML is a Scripting Language

*What is ACRONYM?
This tag is used to display acronyms. This element is new in HTML 4.0 and has only been implemented by internet Explorer.
    <title>using acronym</title>
    <acronym title="justeffects.com"> just </acronym>


Tag is a fundamental component of the structure of a text document. Some examples of tags are heads, tables, paragraphs and list. There is a starting and a closing tag. To
Make a closing tag just add a "/" to the starting tag. Most, but not all tags have a closing tag. Thinking to the browser, or better yet giving it instruction. What you have
Just told the browser (more or less) is that this is the start of a HTML document (<HTML>) and this is the end of a HTML document (</Html>).

What is HTML Tag?
The HTML tag tells your browser that the file contains HTML coded information. The file extension .html also indicates that this is
 An HTML document and must be used accordingly.

Tag is:  <HTML>........ . .</html>

What is HEAD Tag?
The head tag identifies the first part of your HTML-coded document that contains the title. The title is shown as part of your browser's window.

The Tag is:

What is TITLE Tag?
The title tag contains your document title and identifies it’s contain in a global context. The title is typically display in the title bar of the browser window, and not inside
The window itself. The title is also one that is display on someone's hot list or bookmark list. This is precisely why you should choose something descriptive, unique and
Relatively short. A title is also used to identify your pages for search engines. Generally, you should keep your limited to a maximum of 64 characters.

The TAG is : < TITLE >.......   . </TITLE>

The second and largest part of your HTML document is the body, which contains the content of your document (displayed within the text area of your browser window).

META tags are HEAD element that record all information about the page with encoding, character , author, copyright and keywords. META tags can also be used to give information
To the server such as the expiration date, refresh interval and PICS rating for the page. PICS is platform for internet content Selection, provides a method for assigning
Rating (like movie rating) to Web pages.

very common use for the <META> tag is to include keyword that search engine will store to help people find your page. For example, if you want to connect the keywords
Vacation, Sun and Austria, to your Web page. You would do that with a name value pair by setting the NAME attribute to keyword and the contain attribute to vacation, sun, Austria like this:

<META NMAE ="Keyword" CONTENT="vacation, MON, Austria">

You can also specify the language for the tag, such as the following U.S English, British English and French version:
<META NAME ="keyword" LANG="en-us" CONTENT="holyday, MON, Austria">

<META NAME ="keyword" LANG="fr" CONTENT="vacation, India, MALESIYA">

Here's a popular way to use the HTTP header, called client pull. In this case, you can instruct a browser to keep refreshing your page every few second by creating an HTTP
Refresh header with the HTTP-EQUIV attribute. In the following code, i instruct the web browser to refresh the page every five second:

Another popular use for <META> is to override the browser's caching system by using  the  expires value to give a time when the page expires. Browser must not cache the requested
Page beyond the date given. Here is an example:

In this case, event can be Page-Enter, Page-Exit, Site-Enter or Site-Exit second is the transition time is seconds and transition is an integer from 0 to 23 that represent a transition effect.

You can also use REPLY-To to give an email address that user can reply to if they want to get in touch with you HERE is an example:
<META HTTP-EEQUIT="REPLY-TO" CONTENT="effectsjust@gmail.com'>

The <META> element should be used to include information about the page's author’s, a description of the page, and copy right notice. Here's how that might look:

        <META NAME="COPYRIGHT" CONTENT="Copyright 2014 by all right">





Friday, 7 March 2014

what is the definition of a web page and types of web pages?

(1) what is the definition of  a web page  and types of web pages?
- a special type of file written in HTML is called a webpage. some of theme are as follows :-
*persional home page- it repersents invidisulal and intrest hobies and persional information thereof.
*bussiness home pages:- it represents business affairs and products services relating information.
*directories such as yahoo list other web pages by catogry search engine like alta vista and google create indexes to the web.
*artistic projects are pages made by artist:-  its generally contents imges multimedia and provocative.

(2) what is HTML?
- publishing information for global distribution requires a universally understandable language, a kind of publishing mother tongue that all computers may potentially
understand . the publishing language adopted & used by the world wide web is HTML.

HTML renders authors the means/ways to:
*publish online documents with heading, text, tables ,list, phots etc.
*retrieve online information via hypertext links at the click of a button.
*designing forms for affecting transaction with remote & distant services for the use in gathering for information, making reservation, ordering products, etc.
*make inclusions of spread-sheet , video clips, sound clips and other applications directly within their documents.

HTML consists of code , which creates and displays world wide web pages. So ,if you want to make web page,you have to know HTML. The most exciting thing in www and
 HTML is one that gives the ability to link within the document . HTML document are plain-text (also known as ASCII-american standard code for information interchange.) files that can be created using any text editor
(examples of this type are, emaces on UNIX machines, Simple Text on a Macintosh and Notepad on a Windows machine).

Since HTML is a scripting language, output will be displayed on the browser after your code is ready. There are several browsers like Netscape, Internet Explorer, Neoplanet etc.
The most important thing about web designing is creativity. in order to give a good look to your Web page, you should use good graphics which
can be executed through graphics software's like Photoshop, Illustrator, CorelDraw, Free hand , Firework etc.

(3) Advantages of HTML--
HTML offers plenty of advantages, which are stated below:-

*Dynamism/Flexibility: You can always work on your Website even when you're away from the computer you usually work on, because no matter which computer you end up using, it will forever
have a text editor that you can use to edit the HTML page.

*Depth-Understanding:- You will have a much better concept of the structure of your page and understanding of why it functions the way it does, because you built the page from the ground up.

*Troubleshooting: After your HTML page is ready, you will be able to troubleshoot efficiently and have a better idea of what techniques to try if something is not functoining well.
*Price: Using HTML doesn't cost you a cent. There are no expensive licenses to buy and no annoying up-grades to purchase.
*independence:You are not stuck to any one vendor or any one program; you don't have to be downcast about bugs in a particular editing program or any
companies going out of business and leaving you stranded.
*User Friendly: And the fact is that HTML is not case sensitive so it more user friendly.

Tagged structured scripting language.

Easy to develop Html page with notepad or other text editors.

(4)About File Extenion:
This file is called HTML due to reason that Web page documents have the file extension .html or .htm. HTML stands for Hyper text Markup Language. By default the home page is saved as index.htm, default.htm(only for Macintosh based servers).

(5) Before you Start
you must  know the following terms;
*URL:Uniform Resource Locator(the Website address)
*WWW:World Wide Web
*HTTP:Hyper Text Transfer Protocol(this provides linking in between multiple Web pages)
*HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language
*SGML:Standard Generalized Markup Language-a standard for describing markup language
*DTD: Document Type Definition-this is the formal specification of a markup language, written using SGML.

Tuesday, 4 March 2014

What is DOCTYPE Declaration(DTD) and how many DOCTYPE In html ?

the DTD extend for document type declaration,
The <DOCTYPE> declaration helps the browser to display a web page correctly.
there are many different documents on the web(World Wide Web), and a browser can only display on html page 100% correctly its also knows the html type and version used.

the DOCTYPE declaration defines the document type and version.

the DOCTYPE tells the browser which type of HTML is used a webpage and also what version of use document.
DOCTYPE is utilized by the web browser to identify the version of the markup language in which the page is written.

The <!DOCTYPE> declaration must be the very first thing in your HTML document, before the <html> tag.
The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not an HTML tag. it is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in.

In HTML 4, the <!DOCTYPE> declaration refers to a DTD, because HTML 4.01 was based on SGML. The DTD specifies the rules for the markup language, so that the browsers render the content correctly.

HTML5 is not based on SGML, and therefore does not require a reference to a DTD. so its DOCTYPE is very simple.

=== You should not use  <!DOCTYPE> end tag.

==  The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is NOT case sensitive.

Types of DOCTYPE Declarations(DTD):-

(1) HTML 5===

    How to use====<!DOCTYPE html>

(2) HTML 4.01 Transitional===

  How to use===<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">

(3) HTML 4.01 Strict==

        How to use===<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">

(4) HTML 4.01 Frameset==

        How to use===<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">

(5) XHTML 1.0 Strict===

         How to use===<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">

(6) XHTML 1.0 Transitional==

       How to use===<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">

(7) XHTML 1.0 Frameset==

       How to use===<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-frameset.dtd">

(7) XHTML 1.1==

    How to use===<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">

(8) XHTML mobile 1.0==

      How to use===<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD XHTML Mobile 1.0//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/xhtml-mobile10.dtd">